Flue gas emissions & Air Quality

Flue gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion result from the burning of fossil fuels. Most fossil fuels are combusted with ambient air (as differentiated from combustion with pure oxygen). Since ambient air contains about 79 volume percent gaseous nitrogen (N2), which is essentially non-combustible, the largest part of the flue gas from most fossil fuel combustion is uncombusted nitrogen. The next largest part of the flue gas is carbon dioxide (CO2) which can be as much as 10 to 15 volume percent or more of the flue gas. This is closely followed in volume by water vapor (H2O) created by the combustion of the hydrogen in the fuel with atmospheric oxygen. Much of the 'smoke' seen pouring from flue gas stacks is this water vapor forming a cloud as it contacts cool air.

A typical flue gas from the combustion of fossil fuels will also contain some very small amounts of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter. The nitrogen oxides are derived from the nitrogen in the ambient air as well as from any nitrogen-containing compounds in the fossil fuel. The sulfur dioxide is derived from any sulfur-containing compounds in the fuels. The particulate matter is composed of very small particles of solid materials and very small liquid droplets which give flue gases their smoky appearance.

The increase in all kinds of combustion is contaminating the environment with ever-greater concentrations of pollutants. Smog formation, acid rain and the growing numbers of allergies are direct consequences of this development. The solution to environmentally sound energy production must therefore involve reducing pollutant emissions. Pollutants in flue gas can only effectively be reduced if existing plants operate as efficiently as possible or noxious boilers are shut down. Flue gas analysis offers a means of determining pollutant concentrations and adjusting heating installations for maximum efficiency.

Flue gas analysis offers a means of determining pollutant concentrations.

We offer a comprehensive range of portable instruments for the Industrial and Heating markets. There is a flue-gas analyser for any heating and emissions application.


Air quality outdoors in a city and in an industrial area

The air quality outdoors can vary significantly between a city and an industrial area. Here's a comparison of the two:

City Air Quality:
In a typical city, the air quality is influenced by various factors, including vehicle emissions, construction activities, residential and commercial heating, and the concentration of population. The main pollutants commonly found in urban areas include:

a. Particulate Matter (PM): These are tiny airborne particles such as dust, soot, and smoke. PM2.5 (particles with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less) and PM10 (particles with a diameter of 10 micrometers or less) are of particular concern as they can penetrate deep into the lungs and affect respiratory health.

b. Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2): This pollutant primarily comes from vehicle exhaust and power plants. Long-term exposure to NO2 can contribute to respiratory problems and reduced lung function.

c. Ozone (O3): Ozone is a secondary pollutant formed through chemical reactions between nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of sunlight. High levels of ozone can cause respiratory issues, particularly for vulnerable individuals.

d. Carbon Monoxide (CO): CO is mainly produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. It is toxic at high concentrations and can be harmful, especially in enclosed spaces.

e. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs): VOCs are released from various sources, including paints, solvents, and industrial emissions. They can contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone and have both short- and long-term health effects.

City authorities usually monitor and regulate air quality in urban areas, aiming to reduce pollution levels and protect public health.

Industrial Area Air Quality:
Industrial areas tend to have higher pollution levels compared to cities due to the presence of manufacturing facilities, power plants, chemical plants, and other industrial operations. The specific pollutants and their concentrations can vary depending on the types of industries present. Common pollutants found in industrial areas include:

a. Sulfur Dioxide (SO2): SO2 emissions are primarily associated with industrial processes, particularly those involving the burning of fossil fuels such as coal and oil. It can cause respiratory problems and contribute to the formation of acid rain.

b. Particulate Matter (PM): Industrial activities can generate significant amounts of PM, including both coarse and fine particles. These particles can have adverse health effects, depending on their composition and size.

c. Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs): Industrial areas may release various HAPs, which are known to be toxic and pose serious health risks. Examples of HAPs include benzene, formaldehyde, and mercury.

d. Heavy Metals: Industrial processes can emit heavy metals such as lead, mercury, arsenic, and cadmium, which are highly toxic even at low concentrations and can have severe health impacts.

e. Industrial Odors: Industrial areas may produce unpleasant odors due to the release of certain chemicals and compounds.

Monitoring and controlling pollution in industrial areas is crucial to mitigate the adverse effects on both human health and the environment. Regulatory bodies and environmental agencies enforce standards and regulations to limit emissions from industrial facilities.

It's important to note that the specific air quality conditions in a city or industrial area can vary based on local factors, the stringency of regulations, and ongoing pollution control efforts. Regular monitoring, emission control measures, and public awareness are essential for maintaining good air quality and reducing health risks.

Sigma 5000-WH
Ambient air quality monitoring system

Product overview
Sigma 5000-WH air quality monitoring system is widely
used in urban air quality monitoring and industrial air
emission pollution monitoring. It can simultaneously
measure various environmental pollution gases,
particulate matter and meteorological parameters in
the air. The system supports RS485 signal
transmission, with data storage and export functions.
Through the wireless acquisition terminal, the
measurement data can be transmitted to the cloud
platform in real time, and can be remotely controlled
through the cloud platform.

✅ 1-9 different gas parameters can be monitored at the
same time, and measurement modules such as particle
parameters and meteorological parameters can be
selected according to user needs
✅ 7-inch color touch screen display, easy to view datas
✅ Equipped with a professional outdoor shield, it can be
perfectly dust-proof and rain-proof, and can continuously
monitor and work steadily in high or low temperature
✅ Standard equipped with storage function, which can store
at least two years monitoring data
✅ It can work 7x24 hours without interruption, with functions
such as real-time data upload, fault self-diagnosis and
automatic restart
✅ Standard output RS485 signal, a set of relay signal
✅ Optional solar power supply panel to support normal
work when without mains power
✅ Optional outdoor LED display large screen, easy to view
real-time data at any time
✅ Optional adapter card and PC software, real-time viewing
of concentration and historical data on the computer.
✅ Optional 4G DTU and Lora wireless module, real-time upload
gas concentration value to the ecological environmental
protection bureau, departmental server
✅ Optional camera to realize real-time, remote and automatic
monitoring of dust concentration and on-site video and
image collection

Gases (up to 9 gases to be chosen when ordering)
Measurement parameters:ozone, sulfur dioxide,nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, TVOC, etc.;
Measuring range:0-1000ppb, 0-1000ppb,0-1000ppb, 0-5ppm, 0-20ppm, 0-5ppm;
Resolution:1 ppb, 1 ppb, 1 ppb, 0.01ppm, 0.001ppm, 0.001ppm;
Measuring principle: electrochemical, infrared, PID photoion and other principles
Detection accuracy: ±3%.S Response time:≤30S

Particle parameters (optional):
Measurement parameters:PM2.5, PM10, PM0.3,PM1.0, PM10.0, TSP, etc.
Measuring range:0-1000ug/m3, 0-5000ug/m3;Resolution:1ug/m3, 1ug/m3;
Measuring principle: laser principle Response time:≤30S

Meteorological parameters (optional):
Measurement parameters:temperature, humidity,
wind speed, wind direction, air pressure,light intensity, noise, etc.;
Measuring range:-40°C~+120°C, 0~99%RH,0~20m/s, 8 directions, 0~120Kpa, 0~200,000 Lux,30dB~130dB;
Resolution:0.1℃, 1%RH, 0.1 m/s, 1 piece, 1 Kpa,1Lux, 1dB;
Measuring principle:thermocouple, mechanical and other principles

Sampling method: Pump suction
Pump flow rate: 0.5L/min (gas); 1.8L/min (particles/dust)
Monitoring type: Continuous automatic real-time monitoring
Working time: 24 hours continuously
Display screen: 7 inch color touch screen
Display mode: Adaptive display channel number, automaticpage turning
Signal output: RS485、relay、4G DTU(optional)、LORA(optional),etc
Power supply: 220VAC(AC),0.1A
Working current: <100Ma(Max)
Working voltage: Internal: 24VDC; External: 220V/50HZ AC
Working temperature: -10℃~55℃
Working humidity: 0-95%RH,Relative humidity
Alarm type: Sound and light alarm (optional)
Housing: Anti-corrosion, sun protection, anti-collision
Installation type : Fixed
Dimensions: 480×580×163mm (Excluding external sensors, rainproof beams, and mounting brackets)
Weight: 18kgs
Product composition: This equipment is composed of a pre-processing system and a monitoring factor analysis system
Oil water dust filter: Glass fiber material, PE material, different monitoring factors correspond to different materials